Careers, Jobs and Education Resources for: Italy

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Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include illegal immigration, organized crime, corruption, high unemployment, sluggish economic growth, and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Italy compared with the prosperous north. (from the CIA)


Economic Overview

Italy has a diversified industrial economy with roughly the same total and per capita output as france and the uk. this capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, welfare-dependent, agricultural south, with 20% unemployment. most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. over the past decade, italy has pursued a tight fiscal policy in order to meet the requirements of the economic and monetary unions and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates. the current government has enacted numerous short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth. italy has moved slowly, however, on implementing needed structural reforms, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling italy's rigid labor market and over-generous pension system, because of the current economic slowdown and opposition from labor unions. but the leadership faces a severe economic constraint: italy's official debt remains above 100% of gdp, and the government has found it difficult to bring the budget deficit down to a level that would allow a rapid decrease in that debt. the economy continues to grow by less than the euro-zone average and growth is expected to decelerate from 1.9% in 2006 and 2007 to under 1.5% in 2008 as the euro-zone and world economies slow.

Environmental Issues

Air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities

Government Type



58,145,320 (july 2008 est.)


Southern europe, a peninsula extending into the central mediterranean sea, northeast of tunisia


Total: 301,230 sq km land: 294,020 sq km water: 7,210 sq km note: includes sardinia and sicily

Slightly larger than arizona

Country Aliases

Conventional long form: italian republic conventional short form: italy local long form: repubblica italiana local short form: italia former: kingdom of italy


Name: rome geographic coordinates: 41 54 n, 12 29 e time difference: utc+1 (6 hours ahead of washington, dc during standard time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last sunday in march; ends last sunday in october

Military Service

18-27 year of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished january 2005; women may serve in any military branch; 10-month service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 45 (army and air force) or 39 (navy) (2006)

International Disputes

Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern europe and northern africa

Sources: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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