Careers, Jobs and Education Resources for: Mongolia

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The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000, but 2004 elections reduced MPRP representation and, therefore, its authority. (from the CIA)


Economic Overview

Economic activity in mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. copper, coal, gold, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten account for a large part of industrial production and foreign direct investment. soviet assistance, at its height one-third of gdp, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the ussr. the following decade saw mongolia endure both deep recession because of political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-02 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative gdp growth. this was compounded by falling prices for mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. growth was 10.6% in 2004, 5.5% in 2005, 7.5% in 2006, and 9.9% in 2007 largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. mongolia is experiencing its highest inflation rate in over a decade as consumer prices in 2007 rose 15%, largely because of increased fuel and food costs. mongolia's economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. for example, mongolia purchases 95% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. trade with china represents more than half of mongolia's total external trade - china receives about 70% of mongolia's exports. remittances from mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizable, and money laundering is a growing concern. mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with russia at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. mongolia, which joined the world trade organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into asian regional economic and trade regimes.

Environmental Issues

Limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment

Government Type

Mixed parliamentary/presidential


2,996,081 (july 2008 est.)


Northern asia, between china and russia


Total: 1,564,116 sq km land: 1,554,731 sq km water: 9,385 sq km

Slightly smaller than alaska

Country Aliases

Conventional long form: none conventional short form: mongolia local long form: none local short form: mongol uls former: outer mongolia


Name: ulaanbaatar geographic coordinates: 47 55 n, 106 55 e time difference: utc+8 (13 hours ahead of washington, dc during standard time)

Military Service

18-25 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2006)

International Disputes


Sources: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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