Careers, Jobs and Education Resources for: Mozambique


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Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990's. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. Mozambique has seen very strong economic growth since the end of the civil war largely due to post-conflict reconstruction. (from the CIA)
 
 

 

Economic Overview

At independence in 1975, mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. in 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. these steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s, and although it returned to double digits in 2000-06, in 2007 inflation had slowed to 8%, while gdp growth reached 7.5%. fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. in spite of these gains, mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. a substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the mozal aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. at the end of 2007, and after years of negotiations, the government took over portugal's majority share of the cahora bassa hydroelectricity (hcb) company, a dam that was not transferred to mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. more power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the imf's heavily indebted poor countries (hipc) and enhanced hipc initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. in july 2007 the millennium challenge corporation (mcc) signed a compact with mozambique; the mozambican government moved rapidly to ratify the compact and propose a plan for funding.

Environmental Issues

A long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem

Government Type

Republic

Population

21,284,700 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to aids; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (july 2008 est.)

Location

Southeastern africa, bordering the mozambique channel, between south africa and tanzania

Area

Total: 801,590 sq km land: 784,090 sq km water: 17,500 sq km

Slightly less than twice the size of california

Country Aliases

Conventional long form: republic of mozambique conventional short form: mozambique local long form: republica de mocambique local short form: mocambique former: portuguese east africa

Capital

Name: maputo geographic coordinates: 25 57 s, 32 35 e time difference: utc+2 (7 hours ahead of washington, dc during standard time)

Military Service

18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)

International Disputes

None

Sources: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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