Careers, Jobs and Education Resources for: Turkmenistan

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Eastern Turkmenistan for centuries formed part of the Persian province of Khurasan; in medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1924. It achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects were to be expanded. The Turkmenistan Government is actively seeking to develop alternative petroleum transportation routes to break Russia's pipeline monopoly. President for Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died in December 2006, and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential electoral process in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, a vice premier under NYYAZOW, emerged as the country's new president. (from the CIA)


Economic Overview

Turkmenistan is a largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and large gas and oil resources. one-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton; formerly it was the world's 10th-largest producer. poor harvests in recent years have led to an almost 50% decline in cotton exports. with an authoritarian ex-communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. privatization goals remain limited. from 1998-2005, turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. at the same time, however, total exports rose by an average of roughly 15% per year from 2003-07, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. overall prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, a poor educational system, government misuse of oil and gas revenues, and ashgabat's reluctance to adopt market-oriented reforms. in the past, turkmenistan's economic statistics were state secrets. the new government has established a state agency for statistics, but gdp numbers and other figures are subject to wide margins of error. in particular, the rate of gdp growth is uncertain. since his election, president berdimuhamedow has sought to improve the health and education systems, ordered unification of the country's dual currency exchange rate, begun decreasing state subsidies for gasoline, signed an agreement to build a gas line to china, and created a special tourism zone on the caspian sea. all of these moves hint that the new post-nyyazow government will work to create a friendlier foreign investment environment.

Environmental Issues

Contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; caspian sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the amu darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the aral sea; desertification

Government Type

Republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch


5,179,571 (july 2008 est.)


Central asia, bordering the caspian sea, between iran and kazakhstan


Total: 488,100 sq km land: 488,100 sq km water: negl

Slightly larger than california

Country Aliases

Conventional long form: none conventional short form: turkmenistan local long form: none local short form: turkmenistan former: turkmen soviet socialist republic


Name: ashgabat (ashkhabad) geographic coordinates: 37 57 n, 58 23 e time difference: utc+5 (10 hours ahead of washington, dc during standard time)

Military Service

18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2007)

International Disputes

Cotton monoculture in uzbekistan and turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for amu darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with kazakhstan commenced in 2005, but caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled with azerbaijan, iran, and kazakhstan due to turkmenistan's indecision over how to allocate the sea's waters and seabed

Sources: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

1 Turkmenistan Job Found

Senior Drilling Supervisor Jack-up Operations International E&P Operating Company looking to recruit Senior Drilling Supervisors for their offshore...
WRS - Turkmenistan - posted 4 days ago