Occupation Profile for Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders

Operate or tend a variety of machines to join, decorate, reinforce, or finish shoes and shoe parts.

 
 

Significant Points

  • Most workers learn through on-the-job training.
  • This group ranks among the rapidly declining occupations because of increases in imports, offshore assembly, productivity gains from automation, and new fabrics that do not need as much processing.
  • Earnings of most workers are low.

 

 
 
Overview
$21,910.00 Median Annual Wage 0 Average Job Openings Per Year
8.1 Average Unemployment Percentage 82.0 Percentage That Completed High School
4,000 Employment Numbers in 2006 0.0 Percentage That Had Some College
3,000 Employment Numbers in 2016 (est.) 0.0 Percentage That Went Beyond College Degree

Sample Job Titles
Anchor Operator
Anchorer
Ankle Patch Molder
Antiquer
Apprentice, Painter
Apron Trimmer
Arch Cushion Press Operator
Archer
Assembler
Back Closer
Back Stayer
Back Strip Machine Operator
Back Wedger
Barrer
Bed Laster
Bed Machine Operator
Binding Dyer
Binding Stitcher
Block Hand
Block Out Machine Operator
Bobbin Winder
Boot and Shoe Repairman
Boot Maker
Boot Trimmer
Bottom Cementer
Bottom Filler
Bottom Finisher
Bottom Painter
Bottom Polisher
Bottom Sprayer
Bow Machine Operator
Box Toe Maker
Breaster
Brusher
Brushing Machine Operator
Buckle Attacher
Buckle Sewer
Buckler and Lacer
Buffer
Burnisher
Burnishing Machine Operator
Button Sewer
Caser Up
Cementer
Channel Cementer
Channel Layer
Channel Lip Wetter
Channel Opener
Channel Turner
Channeler
Channeling Machine Operator
Closer
Closer On
Clother In
Concaver
Cookie Padder
Cordwainer
Counter Cutter
Counter Former
Counter Maker
Counter Molder
Counter Roller
Counter Stacker
Counter Stitcher
Cripple Chaser
Cripple Cutter
Cripple Worker
Crowner
Cushion Sewer
Cut Out Machine Operator
Cut Out Operator
Cut Out Stitcher
Cutter
Deskidding Machine Operator
Die Cutter
Die Out Worker
Die Press Operator
Die Trimmer
Dieing Out Machine Operator
Doper
Double Head Machine Operator
Double Needle Operator
Double Needle Stitcher
Dyer
Ear Pull Machine Operator
Edge Blacker
Edge Brusher
Edge Burnisher
Edge Cutter
Edge Drummer
Edge Finisher
Edge Molder
Edge Setter
Edge Stainer
Edge Trimmer
Embosser
Equipment Operator
Eyedotter
Eyelet Machine Operator
Eyelet Maker
Eyelet Operator
Eyeletter
Faker
Fancy Needleworker
Fancy Stitcher
Fastener
Feather Edger
Featherer
Finisher
Finishing Area Operator
Finishing Trimmer
Fitter
Flamer
Flat Lock Machine Operator
Flat Lock Operator
Flesher
Floorperson
Folder
Folder Machine Operator
Form Maker
Foxer
Foxing Closer
French Binder
French Cord Binder
French Folder
French Folding Machine Operator
Fudger
Fur Finisher
Fur Machine Operator
Fur Operator
Fur Sewer
Gang Punch Operator
Goodyear Stitcher
Goodyear Welter
Gore Cutter
Gore Stitcher
Gouger
Groover
Groover Operator
Groover Runner
Grooving Machine Operator
Half Backer
Half Sole Fitter
Heel Attacher
Heel Blacker
Heel Breaster
Heel Builder
Heel Burnisher
Heel Caser
Heel Cementer
Heel Compressor
Heel Coverer
Heel Coverer Machine Operator
Heel Curver
Heel Cutter
Heel Dipper
Heel Gouger
Heel Gummer
Heel Layer
Heel Nailing Machine Operator
Heel Padder
Heel Painter
Heel Pricker
Heel Sander
Heel Scourer
Heel Seat Fitter
Heel Seat Laster
Heel Seater
Heel Sewer
Heel Shaper
Heel Shaver
Heel Slugger
Heel Sprayer
Heel Stainer
Heel Stiffener
Heel Trimmer
Heel Turner
Heel Varnisher
Heeler
Hooker
Inker
Innersole Fitter
Innersole Maker
Inseam Trimmer
Inseamer
Insole Beveler
Insole Cementer
Insole Department Worker
Insole Doubler
Insole Lip Turner
Insole Presser
Insole Reinforcer
Insole Rounder
Insole Stiffener
Insole Tacker
Job Setter
Joint Cutter
Jollier
Knifer Up
Kohinoor Operator
Label Sewer
Lacer, Machine
Lacing Operator
Lacing String Cutter
Lapper
Last Chalker
Last Picker
Last Puller
Last Trimmer
Laster
Lasting Machine Operator
Lasting Room Machine Operator
Leather Softener
Leveler
Lining Caser
Lining Cleaner
Lining Closer
Lining Layer
Lining Stitcher
Lip Cutter
Machine Fancy Stitcher
Machine Feed Operator
Machine Operator
Machine Sewer
Machine Stitcher
Manufacturing Assistant
Manufacturing Associate
Manufacturing Operator
Marking Machine Operator
Match Marker
Matcher
Mater
Mc Kay Machine Operator
Mc Kay Stitcher
Mold Insert Changer
Mold Laminator
Multi Needle Machine Operator
Nailer
Nailer Operator
Nailhead Operator
Nailing Machine Operator
Naumkeag Operator
Needleworker
Nicker
Novelty Maker
Offal Roller
Offal Trimmer
Ornament Stitcher
Orthopedic Shoe Maker
Outside Cutter
Outsole Caser
Outsole Cementer
Outsole Compressor
Outsole Handler
Outsole Rounder
Outsole Splicer
Overcaster
Overedge Machine Operator
Overedger
Overlock Operator
Overlocker
Overseamer
Painter
Perforating Machine Operator
Pinking Machine Operator
Piper
Plug Paster
Pounder
Power Hammer Operator
Prick Stitcher
Pricker
Production Worker
Pull Over
Pull Over Machine Operator
Puller
Puller Over
Pump Stitcher
Quarter Backer
Quarter Seamer
Rand Cementer
Rand Maker
Rand Tacker
Rasper Machine Operator
Relaster
Ribbon Hand
Roll Operator
Roller Stitcher
Rough Rounder
Rougher Machine Operator
Rounder
Rubber Down
Sample Stitcher
Scalloper
Scarfer
Seam Closer
Seam Rubber
Seam Sewer
Seam Stayer
Seamer
Seamer Operator
Seat Nailer
Sewing
Sewing Machine Operator
Shank Archer
Shank Breaker
Shank Burnisher
Shank Cutter
Shank Faker
Shank Maker
Shank Rander
Shank Scourer
Shank Stapler
Shank Taper
Shanker
Shanker Out
Shoe Caser
Shoe Cementer
Shoe Cleaner
Shoe Coverer
Shoe Dresser
Shoe Fitter
Shoe Folder
Shoe Lacer
Shoe Laster
Shoe Lining Fitter
Shoe Maker
Shoe Puller
Shoe Reconditioner
Shoe Repairman
Shoe Sewing Machine Operator and Tender
Shoe Shanker
Shoe Sprayer
Shoe Stainer
Shoe Stamper
Shoe Stitcher
Shoe Treer
Shoe Trimmer
Shoe Turner
Shoe Worker
Side Laster
Single Needle Operator
Size Marker
Size Painter
Skin Washer
Skiver
Skiving Machine Operator
Slipper Maker
Slugger
Sock Liner
Sole Blacker
Sole Buffer
Sole Cementer
Sole Conditioner
Sole Conforming Machine Operator
Sole Cutter
Sole Filler
Sole Inker
Sole Layer
Sole Leveler
Sole Molder
Sole Painter
Sole Polisher
Sole Ruffer
Sole Scraper
Sole Seamer
Sole Skiver
Sole Splitter
Sole Stainer
Sole Tacker
Sole Tier
Sole Trimmer
Soler
Splitter, Machine
Stamper
Stamping Machine Operator
Standard Machine Stitcher
Stay Cutter
Stayer
Stitch Bonding Machine Tender
Stitch Burnisher
Stitch Cleaner
Stitch Marker
Stitch Rubber
Stitch Separator
Stitch Wheeler
Stitcher
Stitcher Around
Stitcher, Special Machine
Stitcher, Standard Machine
Stitcher, Tape Controlled Machine
Stitching Machine Operator
Stock Fitter
Stock Letterer
Stock Wetter
Stocker
Stocklayer
Stockman
Stoner
Strap Buckler
Strap Maker
Strap Sewer
String Laster
Suede Brusher
Sueding Machine Operator
Tack Puller
Tacker
Thread Laster
Tip Finisher
Tip Fixer
Tip Mender
Tip Puncher
Tip Scourer
Toe Former
Toe Laster
Toe Trimmer
Tongue Binder
Tongue Stitcher
Top Closer
Top Lift Compresser
Top Lift Scourer
Top Lifter
Top Spotter
Top Stitcher
Tracer
Treer
Trimmer Machine Operator
Trimming Caser
Trimming Machine Operator
Truer
Turn Laster
Turn Sewer
Turner In
Under Trimmer
Uniformer
Upper Caser
Upper Doubler
Upper Stitcher
Upper Tier
Vamp Creaser
Vamp Cut Out Worker
Vamp Liner
Vamp Maker
Vamp Marker
Vamp Seamer
Vamp Throater
Vamper
Vulcanizer
Vulcanizing Machine Operator
Vulcanizing Press Operator
Wedger
Welt Beater
Welt Maker
Welt Rander
Welt Sewer
Welt Slasher
Welt Stitch Cleaner
Welt Stitcher
Welt Wheeler
Wheeler
Wicker
Width Stripper
Wood Heel Back Liner
Wool Brusher
Zigzag Stitcher
Zigzagger

Training
  • These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, pharmacy technicians, salespersons (retail), and tellers.
  • These occupations usually require a high school diploma and may require some vocational training or job-related course work. In some cases, an associate's or bachelor's degree could be needed.
  • Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience may be helpful in these occupations, but usually is not needed. For example, a teller might benefit from experience working directly with the public, but an inexperienced person could still learn to be a teller with little difficulty.
  • Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees.

A high school diploma is sufficient for most jobs in textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations. Most people learn their jobs by working alongside more experienced workers.

Education and training. Most workers in these jobs have a high school diploma or less education. However, applicants with postsecondary vocational training or previous work experience may have a better chance of getting a more skilled job and advancing to a supervisory position.

Machine operators usually are trained on the job by more experienced employees or by machinery manufacturers’ representatives. Operators begin with simple tasks and are assigned more difficult operations as they gain experience.

Precision shoe and leather workers and repairers generally also learn their skills on the job. Manual dexterity and the mechanical aptitude to work with handtools and machines are important in shoe repair and leatherworking. Shoe and leather workers who produce custom goods should have artistic ability as well. Beginners start as helpers for experienced workers, but, in manufacturing, they may attend more formal in-house training programs. Beginners gradually take on more tasks until they are fully qualified workers, a process that takes about 2 years in an apprenticeship program or as a helper in a shop. Other workers spend 6 months to a year in a vocational training program. Learning to make saddles takes longer. Shoe repairers need to keep their skills up to date to work with the rapidly changing footwear styles and materials. Some attend trade shows or specialized training seminars and workshops in custom shoemaking, shoe repair, and other leatherwork sponsored by associations.

Custom tailors, dressmakers, and sewers often have previous experience in apparel production, design, or alteration. Knowledge of fabrics, design, and construction is very important. Custom tailors sometimes learn these skills through courses in high school or a community college. Some experienced custom tailors open their own tailoring shop. Custom tailoring is a highly competitive field, however, and training in small-business operations can mean the difference between success and failure.

Laundry and dry cleaning workers usually learn on the job also. Although laundries and drycleaners prefer entrants with previous work experience, they routinely hire inexperienced workers.

Most upholsterers learn their skills on the job, but a few do so through apprenticeships. Inexperienced persons also may take training in basic upholstery in vocational schools and some community colleges. The length of training may vary from 6 weeks to 3 years. Upholsterers who work on custom-made pieces may train for 8 to 10 years.

Other qualifications. In manufacturing, textile and apparel workers need good hand-eye coordination, manual dexterity, physical stamina, and the ability to perform repetitive tasks for long periods. As machinery in the industry continues to become more complex, knowledge of the basics of computers and electronics will increasingly be an asset. In addition, the trends toward cross-training of operators and working in teams will increase the time needed to become fully trained on all machines and require interpersonal skills to work effectively with others.

Upholsterers should have manual dexterity, good coordination, and the strength needed to lift heavy furniture. An eye for detail, a flair for color, and the ability to use fabrics creatively also are helpful.

Advancement. Some production workers may become first-line supervisors, but most can advance only to more skilled operator jobs. Some in the shoemaking and leatherworking occupations begin as workers or repairers and advance to salaried supervisory and managerial positions. Some open their own shop. They are more likely to succeed if they understand business practices and management and offer good customer service in addition to their technical skills.

Upholsterers, too, can open their own shops. The upholstery business is highly competitive, however, so operating a shop successfully is difficult. Some experienced or highly skilled upholsterers may become supervisors or sample makers in large shops and factories.

Nature of Work

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers produce fibers, cloth, and upholstery, and fashion them into a wide range of products that we use in our daily lives. Textiles are the basis of towels, bed linens, hosiery and socks, and nearly all clothing, but they also are a key ingredient in products ranging from roofing to tires. Jobs range from those that involve programming computers to those in which the worker operates large industrial machinery and to those that require substantial handwork.

Textile machine setters, operators, and tenders run machines that make textile products from fibers. The first step in manufacturing textiles is preparing the natural or synthetic fibers. Extruding and forming machine operators, synthetic and glass fibers, set up and operate machines that extrude or force liquid synthetic material such as rayon, fiberglass, or liquid polymers through small holes and draw out filaments. Other operators put natural fibers such as cotton, wool, flax, or hemp through carding and combing machines that clean and align them into short lengths collectively called sliver. In making sliver, operators may combine different types of natural fibers and synthetics filaments to give the product a desired texture, durability, or other characteristic. Textile winding, twisting, and drawing-out machine operators take the sliver and draw out, twist, and wind it to produce yarn, taking care to repair any breaks.

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators control machines that wash, bleach, or dye either yarn or finished fabrics and other products. Textile knitting and weaving machine operators put the yarn on machines that weave, knit, loop, or tuft it into a product. Woven fabrics are used to make apparel and other goods, whereas some knitted products (such as hosiery) and tufted products (such as carpeting) emerge in near-finished form. Different types of machines are used for these processes, but operators perform similar tasks, repairing breaks in the yarn and monitoring the yarn supply while tending many machines at once. Textile cutting machine operators trim the fabric into various widths and lengths, depending on its intended use.

Apparel workers cut fabric and other materials and sew it into clothing and related products. Workers in a variety of occupations fall under the heading of apparel workers. Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers make custom clothing and alter and repair garments for individuals. However, workers in most apparel occupations are found in manufacturing, performing specialized tasks in the production of large numbers of garments that are shipped to retail establishments for sale.

Fabric and apparel patternmakers convert a clothing designer’s original model of a garment into a pattern of separate parts that can be laid out on a length of fabric. After discussing the item with the designer, these skilled workers usually use a computer to outline the parts and draw in details to indicate the positions of pleats, buttonholes, and other features. (In the past, patternmakers laid out the parts on paper, using pencils and drafting instruments such as rulers.) Patternmakers then alter the size of the pieces in the pattern to produce garments of various sizes, and they may mark the fabric to show the best layout of pattern pieces to minimize waste of material.

Once an item’s pattern has been made and marked, mass production of the garment begins. Cutters and trimmers take the patterns and cut out material, paying close attention to their work because mistakes are costly. Following the outline of the pattern, they place multiple layers of material on the cutting table and use an electric knife or other tools to cut out the various pieces of the garment; delicate materials may be cut by hand. In some companies, computer-controlled machines do the cutting.

Sewing machine operators join the parts of a garment together, reinforce seams, and attach buttons, hooks, zippers, and accessories to produce clothing. After the product is sewn, other workers remove lint and loose threads and inspect and package the garments.

Shoe and leather workers are employed either in manufacturing or in personal services. In shoe manufacturing, shoe machine operators and tenders operate a variety of specialized machines that perform cutting, joining, and finishing functions. In personal services, shoe and leather workers and repairers perform a variety of repairs and custom leatherwork for the general public. They construct, decorate, or repair shoes, belts, purses, saddles, luggage, and other leather products. They also may repair some products made of canvas or plastic. When making custom shoes or modifying existing footwear for people with foot problems or special needs, shoe and leather workers and repairers cut pieces of leather, shape them over a form shaped like a foot, and sew them together. They then attach soles and heels, using sewing machines or cement and nails. They also dye and polish the items, using a buffing wheel to produce a smooth surface and lustrous shine. When making luggage, they fasten leather to a frame and attach handles and other hardware. They also cut and secure linings inside the frames and sew or stamp designs onto the exterior of the luggage. In addition to performing all of the preceding steps, saddle makers often apply leather dyes and liquid topcoats to produce a glossy finish on a saddle. They also may decorate the surface of the saddle by hand stitching or by stamping the leather with decorative patterns and designs. Shoe and leather workers and repairers who own their own shops keep records and supervise other workers.

Upholsterers make, fix, and restore furniture that is covered with fabric. Using hammers and tack pullers, upholsterers who restore furniture remove old fabric and stuffing to get down to the springs and wooden frame. Then they reglue loose sections of the frame and refinish exposed wood. The springs sit on a cloth mat, called webbing, that is attached to the frame. Upholsterers replace torn webbing, examine the springs, and replace broken or bent ones.

Upholsterers who make new furniture start with a bare wooden frame. First, they install webbing, tacking it to one side of the frame, stretching it tight, and tacking it to the other side. Then, they tie each spring to the webbing and to its neighboring springs. Next, they cover the springs with filler, such as foam, a polyester batt, or similar fibrous batting material, to form a smooth, rounded surface. Then they measure and cut fabric for the arms, backs, seats, sides, and other surfaces, leaving as little waste as possible. Finally, sewing the fabric pieces together and attaching them to the frame with tacks, staples, or glue, they affix any ornaments, such as fringes, buttons, or rivets. Sometimes, upholsterers provide pickup and delivery of the furniture they work on. They also help customers select new coverings by providing samples of fabrics and pictures of finished pieces.

Laundry and drycleaning workers clean cloth garments, linens, draperies, blankets, and other articles. They also may clean leather, suede, furs, and rugs. When necessary, they treat spots and stains on articles before laundering or drycleaning. They tend machines during cleaning and ensure that items are not lost or misplaced with those of another customer. Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials, shape and remove wrinkles from items after steam pressing them or ironing them by hand. Workers then assemble each customer’s items, box or bag them, and prepare an itemized bill for the customer.

Work environment. Most people in textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations work a standard 5-day, 35- to 40-hour week. Working on evenings and weekends is common for shoe and leather workers, laundry and drycleaning workers, and tailors, dressmakers, and sewers employed in retail stores. Many textile and fiber mills often use rotating schedules of shifts so that employees do not continuously work nights or days. But these rotating shifts sometimes cause workers to have sleep disorders and stress-related problems.

Although much of the work in apparel manufacturing still is based on a piecework system that allows for little interpersonal contact, some apparel firms are placing more emphasis on teamwork and cooperation. Under this new system, individuals work closely with one another, and each team or module often governs itself, increasing the overall responsibility of each operator.

Working conditions vary by establishment and by occupation. In manufacturing, machinery in textile mills is often noisy, as are areas in which sewing and pressing are performed in apparel factories; patternmaking and spreading areas tend to be much quieter. Many older factories are cluttered, hot, and poorly lit and ventilated, but more modern facilities usually have more workspace and are well lit and ventilated. Textile machinery operators use protective glasses and masks that cover their noses and mouths to protect against airborne particles. Many machines operate at high speeds, and textile machinery workers must be careful not to wear clothing or jewelry that could get caught in moving parts. In addition, extruding and forming machine operators wear protective shoes and clothing when working with certain chemical compounds.

Work in apparel production can be physically demanding. Some workers sit for long periods, and others spend many hours on their feet, leaning over tables and operating machinery. Operators must be attentive while running sewing machines, pressers, automated cutters, and the like. A few workers wear protective devices such as gloves. In some instances, new machinery and production techniques have decreased the physical demands on workers. For example, newer pressing machines are controlled by foot pedals or by computer and do not require much strength to operate.

Laundries and drycleaning establishments are often hot and noisy. Employees also may be exposed to harsh solvents, but newer environmentally-friendly and less toxic cleaning solvents are improving the work environment in these establishments. Areas in which shoe and leather workers make or repair shoes and other leather items can be noisy, and odors from leather dyes and stains frequently are present. Workers need to pay close attention when working with machines, to avoid punctures, lacerations, and abrasions.

Upholstery work is not dangerous, but upholsterers usually wear protective gloves and clothing when using sharp tools and lifting and handling furniture or springs. During most of the workday, upholsterers stand and may do a lot of bending and heavy lifting. They also may work in awkward positions for short periods.

Related Occupations

Sources: Career Guide to Industries (CGI), Occupational Information Network (O*Net), Occupation Outlook Handbook (OOH)
Earnings

Earnings of textile, apparel, and furnishings workers vary by occupation. Because many production workers in apparel manufacturing are paid according to the number of acceptable pieces they produce, their total earnings depend on skill, speed, and accuracy. Workers covered by union contracts tend to have higher earnings. Median hourly earnings by occupation in May 2006 were as follows:

Fabric and apparel patternmakers $15.74
Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers 13.78
Upholsterers 13.09
Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders 11.68
Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders 11.20
Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders 11.08
All other textile, apparel, and furnishings workers 11.03
Tailors, dressmakers, and custom sewers 11.01
Shoe machine operators and tenders 10.54
Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders 10.39
Shoe and leather workers and repairers 9.83
Sewers, hand 9.79
Sewing machine operators 9.04
Laundry and dry-cleaning workers 8.58
Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials 8.56

Benefits vary by size of company and work that is done. Large employers typically offer all usual benefits. Apparel workers in retail trade also may receive a discount on their purchases from the company for which they work. In addition, some of the larger manufacturers operate company stores from which employees can purchase apparel products at significant discounts. Some small firms and drycleaning establishments, however, offer only limited benefits. Self-employed workers generally have to purchase their own insurance.

For the latest wage information:

The above wage data are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey program, unless otherwise noted. For the latest National, State, and local earnings data, visit the following pages:

  • Laundry and dry-cleaning workers
  • Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials
  • Sewing machine operators
  • Shoe and leather workers and repairers
  • Shoe machine operators and tenders
  • Sewers, hand
  • Tailors, dressmakers, and custom sewers
  • Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders
  • Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders
  • Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders
  • Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders
  • Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers
  • Fabric and apparel patternmakers
  • Upholsterers
  • Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other
  • Job Outlook

    Overall employment of textile, apparel, and furnishings workers is expected to decline rapidly through 2016, but some openings will be created by the need to replace workers who leave the occupation.

    Employment change. Employment in textile, apparel, and furnishing occupations is expected to decline by 11 percent between 2006 and 2016. Apparel workers have been among the most rapidly declining occupational groups in the economy. Increasing imports, the use of offshore assembly, and greater productivity through automation will contribute to additional job losses. Also, many new textiles require less production and processing.

    Domestic production of apparel and textiles will continue to move abroad, and imports to the U.S. market are expected to increase. Fierce competition in the market for apparel will keep domestic apparel and textile firms under intense pressure to cut costs and produce more with fewer workers. Although the textile industry already is highly automated, it will continue to seek to increase worker productivity through the introduction of labor-saving machinery and the invention of new fibers and fabrics that reduce production costs. Technological developments, such as computer-aided marking and grading, computer-controlled cutters, semiautomatic sewing and pressing machines, and automated material-handling systems have increased output while reducing the need for some workers in larger firms.

    Despite advances in technology, the apparel industry has had difficulty employing automated equipment for many assembly tasks because of the delicate properties of many textiles. Also, the industry produces a wide variety of apparel items that change frequently with changes in style and season. Even so, increasing numbers of sewing machine operator jobs are expected to be lost to low-wage workers abroad.

    Outside of the manufacturing sector, tailors, dressmakers, and sewers—the most skilled apparel workers—are expected to experience little to no change in employment. Most of these workers are self-employed or work in clothing stores. The demand for custom home furnishings and tailored clothes is diminishing in general, but remains steady in upscale stores and by certain clients. Designer apparel and other handmade goods also appeal to people looking for one-of-a-kind items.

    Employment of shoe and leather workers is expected to decline rapidly through 2016 as a result of growing imports of less expensive shoes and leather goods and of increasing productivity of U.S. manufacturers. Also, buying new shoes often is cheaper than repairing worn or damaged ones. However, declines might be offset somewhat as the population continues to age and more people need custom shoes for health reasons.

    Employment of upholsterers is expected to decline moderately through 2016 as new furniture and automotive seats use more durable coverings and as manufacturing firms continue to become more automated and efficient. Demand for the reupholstery of furniture also is expected to decline as the increasing manufacture of new, relatively inexpensive upholstered furniture causes many consumers simply to replace old, worn furniture. However, demand will continue to be steady for upholsterers who restore very valuable furniture. Most reupholstery work is labor intensive and not easily automated.

    Job prospects. Even though the overall number of jobs in this occupation is decreasing, job openings do arise each year from the need to replace some of the many workers who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the occupation for other reasons.

    Employment

    Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers held 873,000 jobs in 2006. Employment in the detailed occupations that make up this group was distributed as follows:

    Laundry and dry-cleaning workers 239,000
    Sewing machine operators 233,000
    Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials 77,000
    Upholsterers 55,000
    Tailors, dressmakers, and custom sewers 54,000
    Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders 43,000
    Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders 40,000
    Sewers, hand 23,000
    Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders 19,000
    Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders 19,000
    Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers 18,000
    Shoe and leather workers and repairers 16,000
    Fabric and apparel patternmakers 9,200
    Shoe machine operators and tenders 4,100
    All other textile, apparel, and furnishings workers 24,000

    Manufacturing jobs are concentrated in California, North Carolina, Georgia, New York, Texas, and South Carolina. Jobs in reupholstery, shoe repair and custom leatherwork, and laundry and drycleaning establishments are found in cities and towns throughout the Nation. Overall, about 12 percent of all workers in textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations were self-employed; however, about half of all tailors, dressmakers, and sewers and about a quarter of all upholsterers were self-employed.

    Knowledge
    • Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
    • Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
    • Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
    • Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
    • Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
    Skills
    • Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
    • Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
    • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
    • Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
    • Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
    Abilities
    • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
    • Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
    • Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
    • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
    • Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
    Tasks
    • Supplemental — Staple sides of shoes, pressing a foot-treadle to position and hold each shoe under the feeder of the machine.
    • Supplemental — Turn screws to regulate size of staples.
    • Supplemental — Select and place spools of thread or pre-wound bobbins into shuttles, or onto spindles or loupers of stitching machines.
    • Supplemental — Align parts to be stitched, following seams, edges, or markings, before positioning them under needles.
    • Supplemental — Hammer loose staples for proper attachment.
    Activities
    • Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
    • Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
    • Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
    • Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
    • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
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